Fresh water and salty lakes majestic Altai Mountains are beautiful and extremely rich in wild species and birds, some of them endemic. Every year definite number of hunters travel to Mongolia and head to Altai Mountains to hunt particular number of mountain sheep and ibex, those considered the biggest in body size and have big horns according to allowed permission.
Western Mongolia is a country of majestic snow capped mountains and different ethnic groups. Among the ethnic group, Kazak, Muslim people are the most famous as they have been preserving their custom and tradition in its origin compared with Kazaks of different countries. They hunt with trained eagle, every family has dombra, traditional musical instrument and play, dance and sing with the instrument, wear traditional embroidered clothes and live in colorful, decorated with embroidery, slightly bigger ger than gers of other part of Mongolia.
Khuvsgul lake is the deepest lake in Central Asia, with a maximum depth of 262 metres and the world’s 14th largest source of fresh water , so you can drink it.
96 rivers and streams feed into the Khuvsgul lake .Its water is crystal clear and fresh.There are dozens of mountains 2000m high or more, thick pine forests and lush meadows with grazing yaks and horses. It has many different kind of fishes such as Baikal Omul, Lenok , Umber, Siberian Grayling and River Perch. Living in the are member of Buryat Darkhad and Tsaatan \ reindeer people.
Eastern part of Mongolia is endless grassy steppes. Even you drive there from early morning until late evening you will only have sights of wide grassy steppes edged with horizon. The great eastern steppes are the last untouched grassland on earth and home to Mongolian antelopes, which are the most numerous mammals in Mongolia.
The far eastern steppes are bordered with Khentii mountain range where the great KhaanChinggis was born and grown. Many important historical events relevant to ChinggisKhaan took place there. Khentii Mountains are one of the most beautiful places with its clear rivers, streams, small and big lakes and forested mountains. The mountains have been keeping many historical remains and monasteries in its beauty.
In Dariganga, there are a large cave TaliinAgui/ Underground Cave. It is the largest cave in steppes formed by lava bubble in the world and one of the most beautiful caves in Mongolia. Some halls of the cave are filled with permanent ice.
Central Mongolia is beautiful, pristine and rich in wild species and has been keeping many important historical and cultural remains of different historical periods. In central Mongolia, you can discover distinctive natural zones of forested steppes, mountain steppes and Gobi desert and their breathtaking natural beauties and interesting cultural and historical items.
Ruins of Kharakhorum City
Located in beautiful, wide valley of Orkhon river, 360 km southeast of Ulaanbaatar. This wide valley attracted attentions of kings of Mongol states of different periods such as capital of Huns State 209BC-98AD, Syanbi State, Nirun State, Turkic State 552-745AD, Uigur State 750-850AD, Kidan State were established there. Kharakhorum was a capital of the Great Mongol Empire between 1220-1380. By the 15th years anniversary of Chinggis reigned as Khaan, who chose this area and issued decree to build capital city there. Building process of the capital city started in 1220 and continued by his successor OgoodeiKhaan. 413 silver coins of over 10 different countries found from where guaranteed that the city was more like trade center than capital city and was one of important stops of Silk Road. It surrounded by 4 by 4 km walls had 4 main gates. Different trade went on every gate. Residents of the city used to classified by their rank. There were over 10 temples, churches and mosques in Kharakhorum. It was totally sacked by warriors of Chinese Min dynasty in 1380.
One of the destroyed monasteries of Karakorum city started to rebuild by idea of Abtaisain Khan who was 29th golden generation of ChinggisKhaan using old building materials of Kharakhorum city in 1586. Erdenezuu is the largest and oldest monastery in Mongolia. By 1793, there were 62 temples, over 500 gers and houses resided by 10000 monks inside its 400 by 400 m walls. In 1937, communists destroyed many of the monastery’s temples. Now there is a monastery consisted of 28 temples serving as a museum displaying masterpieces of Tankas, appliqués, embroideries and sculptures of the 17th -19th centuries. One of the temples is an active temple and the oldest Tibetan style temple in Mongolia. There are over 40 monks read religious mantra every day in warm seasons. The temples were built by Tibetan, Chinese and Mongolian combined architecture without using single nail is special.
The monastery is not only reason to head to there, also in the sorroundings of the monastery, there are many interesting caves, huge sacred trees and you can have amazing vista from the top of the mounatin. The valley of the Orkhon River is full of ancient historical items and nomads and their countless animals pasturing freely in the wild makes tour more impressive. We recommend Tovhon Monastery people who like hiking, rock climbing and horse riding. There, he also created green Tara and many famous creations. The monastery had 14 temples. Some of temples were destroyed by soldiers of Galdnboshigt, who was Khan of Oirat Mongol/eastern Mongolia and his view were against Zanabazar who decided to submit Manchu. Some of the temples also destroyed by 1930s communist purge. Now, there are 4 temples and 2 stupas under state protection and its chanting activity has been recovered since 1992. The temples and stupas restored in 2001. The monastery registered in UNESCO as a World Cultural Heritage in 1996.
You can picture the most of northern part of Mongolia as a mountainous area covered with forest with the wide valleys dotted with nomads’ white gers and their countless animals. There are many scenic places, cultural and historical remains and more. Mongolia’s second biggest, the deepest, fresh water lake is the Lake Khuvsgul. It is comparable to the famous Russian Baikal in terms of the freshness of its water and the diversity of flora and fauna. It is located in far the north, surrounded by crag and forest covered mountains that is called “taiga”. In the depth of the taiga, on northwest of the lake, there are 400 people from 80 families that live by herding reindeer. They live in tepee covered with canvas or animal skins. Their extensive knowledge of the nature allows them to live in harmony with nature and use herbs and plants for food and medicinal purposes. They are even more dependent on nature than the Nomads elsewhere in Mongolia. The most famous shamans are among them.
Khorgo, TerhiinTsagaan Lake
Khorgo is the last volcano to become extinct in Mongolia. It became extinct 6000-8000 years ago. Khorgo is surrounded by an eight kilometer stretch of basalt landscape, littered with caves, ravines, and canyons from which the area got its name. Khorgo literally means “shelter”. Khorgo is not only the extinct volcano; there are over 10 of them. Khorgo volcano has an average height of 2210m, is 200m in width and 70-80m in depth. The edge and northern part of the cradle are covered with coniferous trees. The lava torrent from the volcanoes blocked the north and south Terh Rivers, leading to the formation ofTerhiinTsagaan Lake. KhorgoTerhiinTsagaan is protected to safeguard its endangered flora, fauna and spectacular mountain scenery. Furthermore, the area is rich in precious and half-precious stones. This area lends itself to bird watching, enjoy nature, fishing, boating, horse riding, visiting nomad families, hiking, mountain climbing and swimming.
Lake Khuvsgul National Park
Lake Khubsgul is located in the northernmost Khubsgul province, from which it takes its name. Khubsgul sticks out into Siberia and away from the central plains of central Mongolia. In 1992, a vast area of around 70,000 sq, km was designated a National Park by the Mongolian Ministry for Nature and the Environment. At its heart, is Lake Khubsgul. The habitats surrounding the lake are varied and home to an array of wildlife: for instance, the wet meadows and lagoons are important for water birds. Mongolia’s the second largest and deepest lake contains 1% of the world’s fresh water, laying at an altitude of 1654m surrounded by taiga forest and crags, created by volcanic activity.
SOUTHERN MONGOLIA & GOBI
When people imagine of Mongolian Gobi, they imagine wide-open unfertile land or continuous massive sand dunes. Mongolian Gobi is a combination of massive sand dunes, wide-open stony, but has vegetation steppes, marvelous rugged mountains rich in flora and fauna, oasis, rivers and streams, Gobi tree groves, high cliffs that appear surprisingly, at most of them dinosaur excavation held successfully
Even though Gobi has lack of pasture land and water, in some dry years the situation is more difficult, still the nomads those lived the area from the generation to generation are living with their animals in search of pasture and water. In the Gobi, you will feel a lot of space, in some days we will drive from attraction to attraction without seeing any nomad, but the natural scenery will always surprise you.
Khongor Sand Dunes
Khongor Sand Dunes are the largest sand dunes in Mongolia that continues 180 km, 5-35 in width, rising 50-300m above the surrounding area. This massive sand dunes accumulated by windblown. Sometimes it is called singing dune by locals. The sound arises from negative and positive charges of fine sand blown by wind. When you climb the dune, you will see beautiful views of surrounding area. In addition, do not forget to crash sand to the north direction against wind to hear another strange sound. It borders magnificent mountains in the south, green-shored river in the north, along with many nomads stay with their herds of camels, sheep, and goats. Except for the amazing natural beauty, there you can have opportunities to ride camel through sand dunes, visit camel herding family, even stay with them on your request.
Gobi GurvanSaihan Mountain
Gobi GurbanSaikhan Mountain or Three Beautiful Mountains in the middle of endless steppes of the Gobi desert rises 2200-2800 m above sea level, has been protecting since 1965. Those are three separate mountains named East Beauty, Middle Beauty and West Beauty that continues over 100 km. The mountains are home to many rare and endangered species including mountain sheep, ibex, snow leopard, deer, wolf, lamergrayer or golden eagle. GurbanSaikhan Mountain is one of the attrations leading us to there to be refreshed, fascinated by natural beauty at the same time enjoy and love wild nature after end of travelled country of emptiness and amazing endless landscapes edged with horizon.
Eagle Valley/Yoliin Am
Eagle Valley is one of the beautiful valleys in the Gobi GurbanSaikhan Mountain. There is a sheer cliff that formed by erosion of wind, rain and stream current. In the depths of the valley, bottom of the sheer canyon does not accept sunlight makes the valley has ice even in the middle of summer. Tourists are always amazed when they see beautiful green valley in Gobi desert. If you are there on right time you will have chance to see wild animals such as ibex, mountain sheep and deer. In the morning at the same time of the sun shines upon upper part of canyon golden eagles began to fly from their nests. The valley was named after those birds.
Pray of bird, one species of eagle. It has beard and golden chest, so it was named golden eagle, sometimes named bearded eagle by locals. Also called doctor bird because they feed on carrions, even eat bones. They carry bones to the rocky mountains close to their nest to throw and break bones into small pieces. They make their nest at least 2000 m above sea level in rocky mountains.
High steep red mud cliffs, which was bottom of an ancient sea where many important paleontological findings were discovered. Some of the findings are valuable, new and rare in the world. First complete dinosaur nest in the world found from where discovered that dinosaurs laid eggs. In1922 American Researcher Roy Andrew traveled Mongolia expected to find trace of ancestors of human. Who found cemetery of dinosaurs except found human settlement camp dated back to The Stone age. People of Gobi knew the bones laying everywhere but they thought those bones are of dragon’s. There many cliffs contain dinosaur bones in the Gobi those attracts thunder more than surrounding area made people think of dragons’. Flaming cliff is strange natural formation and nice place to go on hiking.
Bayan Zag literally translated “an area rich in saksual tree” located 5 km from Flaming cliff. Saksual tree grows only in Central Asian Gobi. The tree has very long root so always green even in very dry summer. Such green forest covered pretty much area in the middle of wide open Gobi desert is beautiful and strange. In some dry summer many nomads stay around grove to use the green trees as emergency feed for animals.
BagaGazariinChuluu in Delgertsogtsoum, Dungobi province. Not only birds, also five kinds of animals of nomads those live in the surrounding area gathered around small lake seems the animals and birds are in the paradise. There is a stone temple built incomplete on the island of lake. Unrepaired natural flat stones carried from 300 km away by cart and mud from lake used to built the temple. The temple was built by son of Tibetan lord in 16th century who arrested before its roof completed. Later it roofed over several times, but broken by thunder strike several times.
Zone of granite stone mountains, 1768 m above sea level, covering an area of 300 sq.km surrounded by flat plain in Delgertsogtsoum, Dundgobi province. Many streams flow through mountain valleys; some of them have aspen groves between gorges. The mountains have been keeping rich historical remains of ancient tombs, burial mounds, rock drawings, rock inscription and monuments dated back to The Bronze Age, Huns state, Turkic state, Great Mongol Empire and 16-17th century and many other sightseeing. There, also you can see ruins of meditation temples of 17th century, crystal cave and eye treatment spa. The mountainous area is home to wild animals, particularly wild mountain sheep and ibex. Sum Huh Burd: A Gobi oasis has reed and temple on the shore. It locates on the way to
Ongi Monastery was one of the largest monasteries consist of two complexes of temples on the north and south banks of Ongi river. Monastery on the southern bank had 11 temples has history over 300 years while the temple complex on the north bank built over 220 years ago. The monastery housed 1000 monks at a time. Along the procedure of scenic area is selected as site monastery built on, the Ongi monastery is surrounded by five sacred mountains have elm trees in the valleys and Ongi, the biggest river in the Gobi flows through mountains. During 1930s socialist purge the monastery was completely destroyed, monks killed, arrested and sent to labor camp. Now there is a temple that is active all year around and ger museum display religious items used by monks of monastery and remains from old temples.